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Diabetic retinopathy

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Cross-section of the human eye in grayscale
Cross-section of the human eye in grayscale

Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease of the retina, the thin tissue that lines the back of the eye, which is a complication of diabetes. High blood sugar levels interfere with oxygen delivery to the retina, the part of the eye that captures images and transfers the information to the brain, eventually leading to vision loss or blindness. This disease is progressive. It begins with the weakening of the blood vessels in the retina which bulge and eventually burst. The blood moves into the eye causing blurred vision[1].

Proliferative retinopathy occurs when new smaller blood vessels begin to form on the retina. These new blood vessels also burst and leak into the eye causing swelling and scar tissue to form which can pull on the retina, detaching it from the eye wall [2].

People with Type 1 Diabetes are more likely to get Diabetic Retinopathy than people with Type 2[3].